Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition that occurs when areas of the skin become darker than the surrounding skin due to the overproduction of melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. There are several types of hyperpigmentation, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), melasma, and age spots.
PIH is a common type of hyperpigmentation that can occur after skin inflammation or injury, such as acne, cuts, or burns. In these cases, the skin produces more melanin in response to the inflammation, which can cause the affected area to become darker than the surrounding skin.
Melasma is another type of hyperpigmentation that is characterized by brown or gray patches on the skin, typically on the face. It is common in women and is often associated with hormonal changes, such as during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
Age spots, also known as liver spots, are another type of hyperpigmentation that commonly occurs as people age. They are caused by exposure to the sun over time and typically appear on areas of the skin that are most exposed to sunlight, such as the face, hands, and arms. They could also be formed due to exposure to environmental pollution.